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Number 2 - Fall / Winter 2014-15

Welcome to our second issue; this is an important one because with it, we begin to look like the established journal we want to become with regular issues appearing twice a year.

In our “Guidelines for Authors” there is a distinction made between more detached, analytical essays and a “policy perspective” piece where opinion is encouraged. In this issue, we introduce our first policy perspective essay. In the aftermath of the police shooting in Ferguson, Missouri, and the protests and demonstrations that followed, an essay addressing an issue that has received increased attention—police body cameras—seemed called for. Dr. Pernell Witherspoon served on police forces for fourteen years and uses that experience to bring attention to an issue that deserves serious, substantive debate. We certainly hope this essay reaches a broad audience.

Regarding the three other essays in this issue, we hope that readers find them interesting, relevant, and readable. One of the goals of the Missouri Policy Journal is to publish articles that can be read by the average, educated adult reader and not geared solely toward a professional audience. The goal of this journal in the long run is to reach a wider audience and to address issues that are more than just interesting, but also policy relevant.

The cover picture for this issue (sunset over Augusta) was taken by someone with no relationship to Lindenwood University. Since a cover picture will be used in each issue of the journal, we are interested in photo submissions from anyone—seeing Missouri from different perspectives adds to our journal. In the case of this particular photo, it was taken on a cell phone.

Cover: Mamie Richardson

Logo: Colleen M. Cernik, Lindenwood '14

Copy Editor: Shelley Walton

Web: Gerald Onyia


Whistleblower Protection for Missouri Nonprofit Organizations

The editor of the Missouri Policy Journal has withdrawn the article “Whistleblower Protection for Missouri Nonprofit Organizations” by Patrick Walker from Issue Number 2, Summer/Fall 2014 of the journal.


Judicial Selection in the State of Missouri: Continuing Controversies

Rebekkah Stuteville

Since its admission to the union in 1821, Missouri has been a microcosm of the national developments and debates that surround the issue of judicial selection. Missouri was the first state to use all three of the most common methods of judicial selection—political appointments, contested elections, and merit selection.1 Because of the state’s experience, the history of judicial selection and the controversies surrounding judicial selection in Missouri provide insight into broader national trends. This article explores the history of judicial selection and the controversies over the various selection methods in the state of Missouri, with an emphasis on the debate that has taken place in the state over the past decade. The article also explains why this issue is relevant to public policy in Missouri. Finally, it provides a snapshot of current opinions on the various judicial selection methods through a survey of community college students.

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One Development Project, Two Economic Tales: The St. Louis Cardinals’ Busch Stadium and Ballpark Village

Eric Click

This article focuses primarily on the interrelated economic development project of the St. Louis Cardinals’ new Busch Stadium (2006) and Ballpark Village (2014). While the new Busch Stadium officially opened on April 10, 2006, and Ballpark Village officially opened on March 27, 2014, nearly eight years later, since the opening of Ballpark Village only included the completion of Phase 1, this interrelated development is actually ongoing and yet to reach fully planned and promised project completion. While originally proposed and envisioned as one simultaneous but layered project, the building and realization of the two entities eventually became two separate but interrelated projects, resulting in public financing of both. Through this evolution, the overall economic development project changed dramatically, including key actors, funding, design, and goals. This research examines both the individual and combined economic impact, both tangible and intangible, of the two entities, including in regard to sustainability.

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Policy Perspective: Police Body Cameras in Missouri: Good or Bad Policy? An Academic Viewpoint Seen Through the Lens of a Former Law Enforcement Official

Pernell Witherspoon

After the fatal shooting of an African American teenager in Ferguson, Missouri on August 9, 2014, various police departments are exploring the use of body cameras. With tensions high, it is hopeful that body worn camera policies will be based on sound research and that appropriate measures are made to achieve optimum effectiveness. The author of this writing, a former law enforcement official and current academic, presents some challenges that police administrators will need to address toward body camera implementation. Because racism is difficult to accurately measure and police are historically reluctant to provide genuine feedback for researchers, the author introduces hypothetical, but realistic, phenomena for Missouri law enforcement leaders to assess. This writing raises questions to who is attracted to or being chosen for the police profession. While difficult and perhaps impossible to prove because of hidden factors, conservatism and lack of college education might be correlated to an officer’s judgment toward delivering equitable treatment to all citizens. Thus, some officers might be motivated to undermine any new policies that hinder their autonomy in policing? The author’s personal experiences are laid out to acknowledge the complexities behind introducing new policies based on knee jerk reactions if self-assessments within departments are not first drawn out.

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Guidelines For Authors

Providing a guideline as to the length of articles submitted is difficult since we aim to publish pieces which cover a topic in-depth and with a policy emphasis. Potential authors may want to contact the editor ( to better determine relevancy and length. We are interested in receiving proposals for articles and will quickly respond to such inquiries. We are interested in a wide variety of issues affecting Missouri affairs. Furthermore, our interest can extend to topics that touch upon interstate and Midwest issues that highlight Missouri. National issues that focus on Missouri are equally welcome. Bear in mind that the words “detached and analytical” and “can be read by the average educated adult reader” used in the Purpose Statement are of paramount importance. Submissions will be sent to a reviewer (Missouri Policy Journal is a peer review journal) as well as a copy editor.

The basic standards are that submissions use the Chicago Manual (sometimes known as the Turabian) style of footnoting. An abstract will also be needed. Footnotes should be at the bottom of the page on which you cited the source. Authors can see the footnote style by examining a current issue and by examining guidelines here: A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. To create footnotes, please use the “Insert Footnotes” function in your Word document. Within Word, select the tab titled “References” to find the “Insert Footnotes” option. Please note that when citing online sources you need to include in your footnote the date you accessed the source and a link to the article or study in addition to the standard footnote information, such as title of the article or study, author’s name (where applicable), page number (if there is one), date, etc. (You can see examples of footnotes for both print and online sources by visiting the link to Turabian footnotes above.) Because the Internet is constantly changing and the link to the source you cited may be gone by the time we publish an issue, including the access date shows the reader that the link was active when you conducted research, and making sure to include the other source details regarding title, date, etc., ensures that the reader can still find the original source should they so desire. If much time has passed from when you started your research to the time you send us the article, please check to see if the link still works—if it doesn’t and you can find the information at a new, working link, please use the working link in your footnote. If the information is simply gone and you can’t find another link, please include the original link you used (with full source information and the access date, readers will understand that the link was active at the time you conducted research).

The journal will be published twice a year (Fall/Winter and Spring/Summer). For the most part, we aim for four articles per issue. In addition, we are interested in shorter pieces by policymakers for a segment titled “One Perspective.” These pieces are not necessarily written in the same way articles are written, but are more like commentary pieces, or they might provide insight policymakers, public officials, newspaper editors, and journalists would like to share. Furthermore, we are also interested in review pieces which address publications or websites that are relevant to Missouri.

Editorial Board

Joseph A. Cernik, PhD
Chair, Department of Public Affairs & Administration
Professor of Political Science & Public Administration
Lindenwood University

Howard J. Wall, PhD
Associate Editor
Director, Hammond Institute for Free Enterprises
Director, Center for Economics and the Environment
Lindenwood University

Jeanie Thies, PhD
Dean of Institutional Research
Associate Professor of Criminal Justice
Lindenwood University

Eric Click, PhD
Program Coordinator of Public Administration
Assistant Professor of Public Administration
MPA Disaster and Emergency Management (DEM) Area Coordinator
HSPA Communication Coordinator
ASPA Secretariat to the Institute of Public Administration Canada (IPAC)
Hauptmann School of Public Affairs
Park University- Downtown Kansas City Campus

Board of Oversight

Board members represent a variety of professions. The views expressed in the articles are the authors’ alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of the editors, the editorial board, the members of the Board of Oversight, or Lindenwood University. Board members are involved by: 1) suggesting topics that should be addressed in future issues of the journal, and; 2) sometimes recommending people to write articles (following the guidelines for authors). Their input is valuable to the journal being relevant to Missouri affairs.

Ted House
Circuit Judge
Division 1, 11th Judicial Circuit Court

Mike Ferguson
Missouri Viewpoints
Missouri Watchdog

Lindenwood University
209 S. Kingshighway
St. Charles, MO 63301